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Lithium-ion batteries can pose unique safety hazards since they contain a flammable electrolyte and may be kept pressurized. A battery cell charged too quickly could cause a short circuit, leading to explosions and fires.  Because of these risks, testing standards are more stringent than those for acid-electrolyte batteries, requiring both a broader range of test conditions and additional battery-specific tests.    There have been battery-related recalls by some companies, including the 2016 Samsung Galaxy Note 7 recall for battery fires.  
Like the other alkali metals , lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation .  Because of this, lithium is a good conductor of heat and electricity as well as a highly reactive element, though it is the least reactive of the alkali metals. Lithium's low reactivity is due to the proximity of its valence electron to its nucleus (the remaining two electrons are in the 1s orbital , much lower in energy, and do not participate in chemical bonds). 
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